A group of lung disorders is known as interstitial lung disease. All these disorders affect a part of your lungs, which is the interstitium. It is a lace-like network of tissues that goes throughout both lungs. The tiny air sacs of the lungs get support from the interstitium. The air sacs are known as alveoli.


The result of all forms of interstitial lung disease is the thickening of the interstitium. Inflammation, scarring or a build-up of fluid can cause this. The following are some types of this disease:

  • Interstitial pneumonia: There can be an infection in the interstitium due to bacteria, viruses or fungi.

  • Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis: Scar tissue grows in the interstitium in this condition.

  • Nonspecific interstitial pneumonitis: People who have autoimmune conditions are affected by this disease.

  • Hypersensitive pneumonitis: When there is irritation in the lungs for a long time due to inhaling allergic substances or other irritants, this happens.

  • Cryptogenic organizing pneumonia (COP): A pneumonia-like interstitial lung disease without infection is COP. Doctors often mention this condition as bronchiolitis obliterans with organizing pneumonia (BOOP).

  • Acute interstitial pneumonitis: This interstitial lung disease is sudden and severe.
  • Desquamative interstitial pneumonitis: Smoking is partially responsible for this interstitial lung disease.

  • Sarcoidosis: The lymph nodes become swollen in this disease, which also affects the heart, eyes, skin and nerves.

  • Asbestosis: Breathing asbestos causes this disease.


Shortness of breath is the main symptom. Some other symptoms are:

  • Cough, usually dry and without mucus
  • Weight loss

It’s better to consult a chest specialist in Kolkata on having these symptoms.


When an injury to the lungs triggers an abnormal healing response, this disease seems to happen. The injury can be due to:

  • Occupational and environmental factors
  • Some medications
  • Some medical conditions

Risk factors

You become more susceptible to interstitial lung disease due to the following factors:

  • Exposure to occupational and environmental toxins
  • Age
  • Gastroesophageal reflux disease
  • Smoking
  • Radiation and chemotherapy


For the diagnosis of this condition, the best pulmonologist in Kolkata may suggest the following tests:

  • Blood tests
  • Computerized tomography (CT) scan
  • Echocardiogram
  • Spirometry and diffusion capacity
  • Oximetry
  • Lung tissue analysis


The different treatment options include:


The chest doctor in Kolkata prescribes corticosteroid medications for the treatment of interstitial lung disease. Medicines reducing stomach acid and medications slowing down the progression of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis are also effective.

Oxygen therapy

It helps to:

  • Prevent or lessen the complications that arise from low oxygen levels in the blood
  • Make breathing and exercise easier
  • Improves sleep and the sense of well-being
  • Reduces blood pressure on the right side of the heart

Pulmonary rehabilitation

The following are involved in pulmonary rehabilitation programs:

  • Physical exercise
  • Breathing techniques
  • Nutritional counselling
  • Emotional support


The people with severe interstitial lung disease may have to undergo lung transplantation when other treatment options don’t give effective results.